Day One: Seven (7) Hours of Instruction 

Case Study and Discussion: The student reviews an Aviation Accident Report and discusses the human, organizational, technical, and environmental factors related to the accident. Introduction to Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Category Identification Students refer to Hazard Categories as defined in the Student Work Book. This case study is impactful and brings attention to the significant and positive impact that a Safety Leader can have on their organization. This discussion provides the starting point for considering 'what-if' the crew was able to take actions to prevent the accident.


Safety Leader Roles & Responsibilities: This module defines and discusses the roles responsibilities of a Safety Leader. Whether the position is occupied by a full time individual or whether it is managed as a collateral duty, there are expectations organizationally and requirements as stated in the operation's safety program and/or Safety Management System. Group discussion regarding managing their role effectively.


Policies, Processes & Procedures: This module discusses the importance of designing and maintaining good policies, processes and procedures in the operator's manual system. Well written documents provide a clear and concise message to the reader. The importance of controls are often under-utilized resulting in non-conformance and non-compliance. The ability to identify when a procedure is incomplete, obsolete or could use an enhancement will support efforts to maintain a safe and compliant organization. Exercise to practice these concepts.


Organization Authorities & Responsibilities: This module discusses safety accountabilities, organization authorities and responsibilities for individuals that must be accomplished to ensure balanced management of all safety related tasks. Discuss the cascade effect from Accountable Executive to front line employee involvement in safety responsibilities. Importance of current and relevant job descriptions and roles.


Just Safety Policy: This module explores the reasoning behind a just culture and provides insight into to practical ways to apply this philosophy both in writing (i.e. policy) and in actual organizational behavior (culture). The student learns about policy's role in preventing an 'organizational accident' and reviews the algorithm for just culture decision-making after an employee deviation from policy that results in an incident. The module also provides ICAO's perspective on just culture and the purpose of a safety policy statement from the accountable executive


Review and Discussion: Students discuss lessons learned from the day's lessons and how they can apply the information at their organization.

 

Day Two: Seven (7) Hours of Instruction

Case Study and Discussion: The student reviews an Aviation Accident Report and discusses the human, organizational, technical, and environmental factors related to the accident. Students practice Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Category Identification. Students refer to Hazard Categories as defined in the Student Work Book. This case study is impactful and brings attention to the significant and positive impact that a Safety Leader can have on their organization. This discussion provides the starting point for considering “what-if” the crew was able to take actions to prevent the accident.

Managing Human Factors: This module presents the philosophy of how unmanaged human factors can lead to accidents. It examines the SHELL model to provide insight into the potential effects of human interaction with software, hardware, environment, and other people. The 5-M approach to accident prevention is explored to include psychological and cognitive factors. Practical applications for safety performance indicators and targets are presented and discussed. Discussion about conflict management. ICAO tools are provided to the students with a demonstration on how they work. Examples are reviewed with the students to include official causes and contributing factors as they relate to the Reason causation model.

Safety Risk Management Principles: This module covers the concept of safety, challenging conventional methods with progressive thinking about accident causation which focuses on the organization’s decisions that lead to latent conditions. It addresses human error and deviation, while addressing defenses that can be put in place to prevent an incident. These principles are discussed throughout the course.

Safety Risk Management Process & Risk/Hazard Registers: This module describes the safety risk management process to include: Safety occurrence reporting, hazard identification, consequences, risk analysis, risk assessment, risk tolerability, and developing mitigation. It addresses the value of stakeholders and effective control implementation. This process is used during discussions and exercises throughout the course. Risk/Hazard registers are presented with tips on how best to utilize them to track and monitor risk management, brief the accountable executive and, ensure the organization stays on track to achieve its goals. Exercise to practice this concept.

Bowtie Method of Risk Management: This module covers the origins of the Bowtie technique. It provides insight into the framework of threats, consequences, escalation factors, and barriers. This highly visual model allows the user to see one complete picture of how to mitigate risk by affecting both probability (barriers to threats) and severity (barriers to consequences). The student applies the model to basic aviation risks related to consequences such as CFIT, fatigue and LOC-I. Exercise to practice this concept.

Occupational Health and Safety (OHS): This enlightening module presents the need for OHS. Statistics are presented to grab attention to the critical requirement for a comprehensive OHS and monitoring system to ensure compliance. The student learns about OHS requirements, both from the employer and employee perspective. Typical OHS Hazards in the Workplace are reviewed, along with the typical OHS standards violated in recent published statistics. Explanation of the differences between an OHS versus SMS focus, with the idea that a common Hazard – Risk Registry can serve both purposes.

Review and Discussion: Students discuss lessons learned from the day's lessons and how they can apply the information at their organization.

 

 

Day 3: Seven (7) Hours of Instruction

Case Study and Discussion: The student reviews an Aviation Accident or Incident Report. The lesson presents skills to develop and ask questions during an interview session based upon information gained from the report. The group discusses the human, organizational, technical, and environmental factors related to the incident or accident. Students practice Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Category Identification. The case study brings attention to the importance of fact finding and team discussions regarding what really happened by practicing interview skills and using the information gained to determine root causes and corrective actions to mitigate recurrence of the issues discovered.

Safety Performance Monitoring & Measuring: This module defines what is includes in monitoring safety performance and method of measurement. It discusses methods to monitor safety performance, safety performance analysis and reporting. It discusses the concepts related to Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs) and targets. The value of internal evaluation programs (IEPs) and employee safety surveys. The student is challenged to consider a fundamental reason for having an IEP, i.e. promote and ensure compliance and for preventing an incident or accident.

Incident Investigation Methods: This module explores the purpose and how to investigate following an incident. It examines an OSHA incident/accident investigation guide book and covers the essential elements to include: evidence collection, interviewing witnesses and involved employees, determining and examining contributing factors. Boeing investigation techniques are presented and discussed (MEDA, REDA, PEAT, CPIT). This provides the student with an understanding of the interplay between errors, deviations, and causal factors.

Emergency Response Plan (ERP): This module provides insight into ERP requirements from an ICAO perspective. References cited include ICAO Annex 19, Chicago Convention, ICAO Document 9859, Safety Management Manual, and advisory information from national authorities. Focus is placed on the objective of an ERP, as well as recommended contents for post-accident considerations. The module discusses media management, family assistance planning and NTSB interface. Conformity checklists are reviewed.

Safety Training Plans: This module highlights the role of training in preventing accidents and incidents. Techniques are explored to develop a training plan by reverse engineering the accident causation model by Dr. James Reason. ICAO guidance is presented and discussed with focus on hazard taxonomy and how this can assist the safety leader in developing a strategic approach to training. A training gap analysis tool is presented and shared with each attendee that they can apply in their own organization.

Root Cause Analysis: This module explores the various techniques of root cause analysis. The techniques presented and discussed include: Events and Causal Factor Analysis, Change Analysis, Barrier Analysis, 5-Whys, and the Ishikawa Fish Bone Diagram. Practical examples are provided and discussed. An exercise is completed using a scenario-based event.

Auditing and Internal Evaluation Programs: During this module, the student reviews key audit terms and audit principles based on ISO 19011: Guidelines for Auditing Management Systems. The importance of designing a comprehensive Internal Evaluation Program. Elements of auditing include Preparation, Performance, Reporting and Follow-up. Concepts include: values of audit integrity, fairness, confidentiality, independence, and evidence-based conclusions, determining audit scope, audit objectives, population sampling and auditor training requirements. The student is presented with various audit criteria which can be applied to a wide variety of organizations, each one having a focus on safety risk management. The module presents an example of industry tools utilized to perform audits and evaluations to include the ICAO, FSF, IBAC and FAA. Evidence Gathering Techniques are reviewed. Interviewing techniques are explored to include salient points from ISO 19011.

Discussions on how to document findings based on the audit criteria, audit objectives, and collected evidence. Benchmarking and Best Practices. Awareness of Hypercompliance and the normalization of deviance are discussed. Differences between compliance and conformity. Appropriate use of auditor observations and recommendations. Corrective action plans and follow up criteria. Exercise to practice audit techniques.

Review and Discussion: Students discuss lessons learned from the day's lessons and how they can apply the information at their organization.

 

Day 4: Seven (7) Hours of Instruction

Case Study 4 Discussion: The student reviews an Aviation Accident Report and discusses the human, organizational, technical, and environmental factors related to the accident. Students practice Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Category Identification. Students refer to Hazard Categories as defined in the Student Work Book. This case study is impactful and brings attention to the significant and positive impact that a Safety Leader can have on their organization. This discussion provides the starting point for considering “what-if” the crew was able to take actions to prevent the accident.

Organizational Culture: This module explores the relationship between SMS performance and organizational culture. Students learn about the characteristics of a safety culture and how that relates to an organization’s overall culture. Key attributes of a safety culture are presented and discussed to include: reporting, informed, just, flexible, and learning. Scholarly research is cited which describes the correlation between trust, information, and incident rates. Finally, the student is presented with a variety of ways to assess the culture of their organization.

Management Versus Leadership: This fascinating module explores the differences between the concepts of management and leadership. As both sides of one coin are considered, the student is reminded that successful leaders must manage, and successful managers must lead. This training is a clear and refreshing reminder that anyone can be a leader and leadership is not just for those who hold higher titles. The four pillars of the SMS are discussed relative to which components require leadership and which requires effective management.

Effective Safety Meetings: This module covers the essential and universal elements of managing effective and productive safety meetings. It highlights the importance of earning the reputation of being a skilled meeting facilitator. Fundamental tips are presented that enable the student to apply immediately in their organization. All aspects are covered from meeting planning, conducting the meeting, and post-meeting follow-up activities.

Business of Safety: This module explores the how to manage a safety program like any other business, with values and principles that are universal and timeless. The student learns about Fayol’s 14 business management principles and how they can be applied to safety risk management. By the end of the lesson, the student will have considered and discussed the value of balancing production and safety effectively to improve operational capability.

Management of Change: This module presents change events that should be managed formally within the SMS. Discusses the essential steps in managing change to effectively identify threats and associated consequences. Practical examples are provided to analyze risk and mitigate the risk level to as low as reasonably practical. ICAO and national authority advisory guidance is utilized to make the case for the change management and tools are presented to assess the effectiveness of the change management element of the SMS. Exercise utilizes a realistic scenario that requires the student to gather skills and techniques they’ve acquired during the course. Tasks are identified and assigned to personnel. Risk assessments are performed for each change required, and mitigations are developed to enable each task in the larger plan to move forward in a structured and planful manner.

Review and Discussion: Students discuss lessons learned from the course and how they can apply the information at their organization.

Exam

 

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“Great course. Great content. Experience instructors. Enjoyed my learnings.”

-J. Williams

 

“This was one of the best courses I have taken in a long time!  The instructors were highly knowledgeable and gave a thorough approach to SMS.  I know that we will tailor our current program to incorporate the best practices outlined in this course.”

-L. Clifford

 

“I really enjoyed the course design. The instructor was an excellent wealth of knowledge.”

-T. Knopp

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